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        閱讀 4933 次 歷史版本 0個 創建者:zc_zhouchao (2018/3/13 11:14:50)  最新編輯:zc_zhouchao (2018/3/13 11:14:50)
        商殼
        目錄[ 隱藏 ]

        中藥名

        商殼 shangqiao

        別名

        炒枳實、只殼、枳實。

        英文名

        Fructus Aurantii。

        來源

        蕓香科植物酸橙Citrus aurantium L.接近成熟的果實。

        植物形態

        常綠小喬木,分枝多。枝具棱和短刺。單身復葉,互生;葉片寬橢圓形或寬卵形,長7~12cm,寬4~7cm,先端窄而銳或急尖,基部圓形或寬楔形;葉柄翅倒卵形,寬1~1.5cm,有時較窄或寬,葉柄短。花白色,單生或2~3朵簇生于葉腋。萼杯狀,5淺裂。花瓣5,長圓形,具芳香,有脈紋。雄蕊約25.花絲基部結合。果近球形,直徑5~8cm,橙黃色,果皮粗糙。瓤囊10~12瓣,果肉酸帶苦味。種子約20.,卵形。子味乳白色,單胚。花期5~7月,果期11~12月。

        產地分布

        多栽培于丘陵、低山地帶。分布于我國長江流域地區,主產于江西、湖南、四川。

        采收加工

        7月果皮尚綠時采收,自中部橫切為兩半,曬干或者低溫干燥。

        藥材性狀

        半球形,直徑3~5厘米。外果皮褐色,有顆粒狀突起,有明顯的花柱殘基或果梗痕。切面中果皮黃白色,邊緣1~2列油室。質堅硬,不易折斷。瓤囊7~12瓣,內藏種子。氣清香,味苦、微酸。

        性味歸經

        性溫,味苦、辛、酸。歸脾經、胃經。

        功效與作用

        理氣寬中、行滯消脹。屬理氣藥。

        臨床應用

        用量3~9克,煎湯內服;或入丸、散。外用:適量,煎水洗或炒熱熨。用治胸脅氣滯、脹滿產痛、食積不化、痰飲內停、胃下垂、子宮脫垂、脫肛等。

        藥理研究

        升高血壓;抑尿;抗休克;抑制胃腸運動;對子宮有興奮或抑制雙重作用。

        化學成分

        本品含揮發油、橙皮苷、枳屬苷、松柏苷、柚皮素-7-蕓香糖苷、福橘素、甜橙素、新橙皮苷、異歐前胡內酯、茴芹香豆精、柑屬環肽Ⅱ、柑屬環肽Ⅲ、柑屬環肽Ⅳ、忍冬苷、生物堿等成分。

        使用禁忌

        孕婦慎用。

          詞條分類[我來完善]

        • 按學科分類: 中醫學
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